In many countries of the Global South, climate-induced migration is still stigmatised as a failure to adapt. However, comprehensive adaptation requires open approaches that include migration as part of the solution. Stakeholders from governments and NGOs play a central role in shaping actions for adaptation. Using Pakistan as a case study, this paper analyses how stakeholders perceive the nexus between environmental risks and migration, and how these perceptions influence adaptation outcomes. Pakistan is expected to be strongly affected by future climate change.
The contentious status of the Durand Line between Afghanistan and Pakistan is a symbol of both the problems of state and nation-building and their conflict-prone relationship. First, the unresolved border of the Durand Line was a tool in the process of nation building by Afghan governments, whose demand until the 1970s for a “Greater Pashtunistan” challenged the territorial integrity of Pakistan. Second¬ly, in the 1990s, the Durand Line acquired a regional dimension when the Pakistani military linked Afghanistan to its conflict with India over Kashmir.
The origins of the Durand Line are one of the most under-researched aspects of the border dispute. Unanswered questions include: Was the 1893 border agreement signed under duress, as Afghan authorities and Pashtun nationalists hold? If not, why did Amir Abdur Rahman sign it? Did Ghaffar Khan, the founder of the Pashtun nationalist movement Khudai Khitmatgar, seek an independent Pashtunistan, or was he merely advocating autonomy?