The number of non-resident Indians and People of Indian Origin living in Germany has doubled in the last 15 years. Against this background, the paper looks at the multiple cross-border linkages maintained by Indian migrants in Germany. The paper first portrays the development of Indo-German migration since 1950. The main section then describes what linkages are developed by Indian migrants living in Germany between their places of residence and their places of origin.
In many countries of the Global South, climate-induced migration is still stigmatised as a failure to adapt. However, comprehensive adaptation requires open approaches that include migration as part of the solution. Stakeholders from governments and NGOs play a central role in shaping actions for adaptation. Using Pakistan as a case study, this paper analyses how stakeholders perceive the nexus between environmental risks and migration, and how these perceptions influence adaptation outcomes. Pakistan is expected to be strongly affected by future climate change.