For more than half a century, Myanmar was ruled by the military. Even now, with a civilian government in power, the military exerts considerable political influence and sees its involvement in national politics as a fundamental task alongside defending the sovereignty and integrity of the country. This factual situation logically derives from the origins and development of the armed forces.
Although Kachin resistance against the Burmese/Myanmar state has continued since the 1960s, in 1948 the Kachin were enthusiastic supporters of the Panglung Agreement and the Union of Burma. The article traces the development and treatment of the Kachin areas since British colonisation and shows how the foundations of the current situation were laid in the early decades of the twentieth century.
For decades, if not centuries, the term imperialism has been used in manifold and ambivalent ways. Some historians, such as William Hancock, therefore shied away from using it in their texts, while others set up theories to explain as much as possible with regard to the European expansion into the non-European world – and in some cases even beyond.
This article deals with connections between the rise of Japan, Indonesian nationalism and the Eurasian community between 1900 and 1942. It shows how Dutch official and public assessments of Japan as an external threat differed over time. The same was true of Indonesian views of Japan. Eurasians were caught in the middle between Dutch conservatism on the one hand and Indonesian nationalism on the other. Different choices on this domestic issue also resulted in different positions towards Japanese expansionism.